General Study Syllabys for Engineering Sciences with Specialisation in Electrical Discharges in the Atmosphere
Engineering Sciences with Specialisation in Electrical Discharges in the Atmosphere
Swedish title: Teknisk fysik med inriktning mot atmosfäriska urladdningar
Responsible department: Department of Electrical Engineering
Subject-specific parts (*) in Swedish adopted by the Faculty Board (the Doctoral Education Board) on 2008-07-02. Revision on 2020-01-15. Translations approved 2010-09-03 and 2020-01-15.
Faculty-common parts approved by the Faculty Board of Science and Technology on 2022-04-26. Revision on 2023-02-07.
The faculty-common parts go into force on 1 July 2022. The Faculty-common parts also apply to those who started their doctoral education prior to 1 July 2022, except if this would have a negative impact on the conditions for doctoral students.
Subject description *
Atmospheric discharges encompass lightning flashes and any other electrical discharge that may result when an object is raised to a high potential either intentionally or un-intentionally. These discharges may range in length from less than 1mm to about 10 km. Lightning flashes generate strong disturbances in electrical power systems, telecommunication systems and any other electrical system. They also have environmental implications since they can generate various trace gas species in the atmosphere. High voltages are used in various industrial as well as other man made activities such as power generation and transmission. In some cases the electrical discharges resulting from these high voltages are utilised in industrial applications and in others the electrical discharges can cause malfunctioning and break down of the system. Another type of electrical discharge which causes numerous problems in electronic industry, and sometimes leading to catastrophic explosions, is the electrostatic discharges resulting from the static charging of various objects. The doctoral education in Engineering sciences with special reference to atmospheric discharges is designed to provide a deep knowledge in the physics, characteristics and the effects of these atmospheric electrical discharges – the only educational program in Sweden that address problems and questions relevant to this field. Students have the opportunity to carry out research and education in (1) the physics of lightning flashes, (2) interaction of lightning flashes with the ionosphere, atmosphere, electrical power transmission and distribution systems, telecommunication systems and with any other man made structures, (3) the generation of trace gas species in lightning flashes, (4) lightning protection methodology, (5) physics of electrical discharges and (5) the nature and the effects of ESD. One branch of education which is being introduced is the interaction of electrical discharges with material surfaces. Students have the opportunity to carry out experiments both in the field (utilising the mobile research laboratory) and in the high voltage laboratory which has facilities to create electrical discharges with peak currents up to 200 kA with energies up to 250 kJ – a facility which is unique in the Nordic countries. Students also have access to the data that is being gathered from the lightning localisation systems that cover most part of Sweden and other Nordic countries. Facilities are also available to create electrical discharges with well defined energies using laser triggering techniques. Various collaborative links with countries in the tropics will provide the students with opportunities to carry out field experiments in lightning research in the tropics. The research work in this field is carried out in close collaboration with different industries in Sweden.
Aim and objectives of the education
Overall aim and objectives of the education
Doctoral education shall develop the knowledge and skills needed to be able to conduct research independently (Higher Education Act, 1992:1434). The Higher Education Ordinance’s System of Qualifications (Appendix 2, 1993:100) sets out the requirements to be met for a doctoral and licentiate degree, respectively (see individual study plan template).
Subject-specific objectives *
Supervision and thesis work will make the student well prepared to carry out independent scientific research. After the education, the student will be familiar with scientific questions and methods in this discipline and will have reached thorough knowledge within the specific area of the thesis. The student will be able to critically assess his/her own scientific work and that of others.
The doctoral student shall also be able to present her/his own goals and results orally and in writing to different target groups in English and, in the case of Swedish-speaking doctoral students, in Swedish.
General entry requirements
General entry requirements for doctoral education are regulated in the Higher Education Ordinance as follows:
An applicant shall be considered as meeting the general entry requirements if they have
- completed a degree at the advanced level (Master’s level), or
- completed course requirements of at least 240 credits, of which at least 60 credits are at the advanced level (Master’s level), or
- acquired substantially equivalent knowledge in some other way in Sweden or abroad.
The University may permit an exemption from the general entry requirements for an individual applicant, if there are special grounds (Chapter 7, § 39 of the Higher Education Ordinance).
In order for a person who has completed course requirements of at least 240 credits (under the second item above) to be considered eligible at Uppsala University, the 60 credits at advanced level must include a degree project of at least 15 credits (AFUU § 2, UFV 2022/729).
Special entry requirements *
Special eligibility is assigned to a candidate who has taken courses within all relevant areas in the subject with sufficient breadth and depth. Thus, special eligibility is considerer a candidate with one of the following:
a) has obtained a Master’s degree in engineering (Swedish “Civilingenjörsexamen”) from a Swedish Technical University/College and hence taken courses within the relevant areas of the subject
b) in a different way has gained knowledge principally to the same extent as in a), irrespectively of the country of study.
Advertisement, selection and admission
Information and advertisement
Admission shall be made on a competitive basis following open advertisement of a doctoral place, with the exception of that which is specified in Chapter 7, § 37 of the Higher Education Ordinance. The advertisement shall be made available locally and on the University’s website (www.uu.se) at least three weeks before the application deadline and should be given appropriate national and international dissemination.
Selection among the applicants shall be carried out with consideration given to their ability to successfully conduct their studies. The assessment criteria for selection are:
- knowledge and skills relevant to the thesis work and the subject/specialisation
- assessed ability to work independently, for example
- ability to formulate and address scientific problems
- written and oral communication skills
- ability to carry out independent critical analysis
- other experience relevant to doctoral studies, e.g. professional experience.
The assessment criteria may be demonstrated, for example, by supporting documents, an interview or a skills test.
In addition, an assessment is made of the applicant’s general competence and personal qualities, as well as their ability to collaborate. If a number of applicants are judged as being equal, preference shall be given to applicants from the underrepresented legal gender among the doctoral students in the subject/specialisation.
The mere fact that an applicant is deemed to be able to be awarded credits for prior studies or professional experience for the purpose of doctoral studies shall not give an applicant preference over other applicants during selection (Chapter 7, § 41 of the Higher Education Ordinance).
A doctoral student is admitted to a doctoral programme in a doctoral subject/specialisation. Admission of a doctoral student with full-time employment in their doctoral studentship at Uppsala University is decided by the head of the relevant department, except in cases specified in the Faculty’s guidelines for doctoral education (TEKNAT 2021/301). Admissions with other forms of funding are decided by the Faculty Board’s Working Committee after preparation in the Doctoral Education Board.
Structure and content of doctoral education
Doctoral education consists of courses and research work, and can take various forms, as specified in the individual study plan.
The research project must be well-defined and the level of ambition must be set taking into account both the degree objectives of the programme and the net study time (maximum 48 months for a doctoral degree or maximum 24 months for a licentiate degree).
Requirements for doctoral degree *
The requirements for doctoral degree consist of on one hand passed examinations in the courses included in the approved individual study plan of each doctoral student, and on other hand passed public defense of the doctoral thesis. The program leading to the doctoral degree amounts to 240 higher education credits (four years of full-time studies), of which the thesis part amounts to a minimum of 120 higher education credits and the course part to a minimum of 60 higher education credits.
Requirements for licentiate degree *
A stage of at least 120 higher education credits (two years of full-time studies) in the third level program may be completed with a licentiate degree. The requirements for this are that the doctoral student both has passed the examinations included in the program stage and has got an academic paper amounting to a minimum of 60 higher education credits passed. The course part amounts to a minimum of 30 higher education credits.
The head of department is responsible for ensuring that sufficient time is allotted for the department’s doctoral students to receive the necessary supervision. A doctoral student has the right to request a change of supervisor (Chapter 6, § 28 of the Higher Education Ordinance).
Individual study plan
The principal supervisor, in consultation with the professor responsible for doctoral studies (FUAP), is responsible for drawing up an initial individual study plan prior to admission. The head of department approves the study plan in connection with admission. The individual study plan shall contain a timetable for the doctoral studies, specification of how supervision is organised, and a description of the undertakings of the doctoral student and the department during the period of studies. The individual study plan also specifies the courses included in the doctoral student’s education.
The individual study plan must be revised at least annually in collaboration between the doctoral student and their supervisor. The revision involves following up on the doctoral student’s progress in relation to the degree objectives and previous plan, as well as planning for further studies. The FUAP approves the revised study plan.
Follow up *
A course in research ethics, with a minimum of 2 credits and content equivalent to the courses provided by the Faculty, shall be included for the licentiate and doctoral degrees. An introductory course to doctoral studies and a course in scientific writing are also recommended.
Doctoral students who teach should undergo teacher training for higher education. This is specified in the individual study plan, and can either be a credit-bearing course element or take place within the framework of the doctoral student’s departmental service.
Teacher training for higher education, lasting 5 weeks, is equivalent to 7.5 credits at the Faculty, and may be included in the doctoral programme.
Basic Swedish language training for doctoral students who do not have Swedish as their first language may be a credit-bearing course element or take place within the framework of the doctoral student’s departmental service.
Subject-specific courses *
Within the third level program there may be different kinds of courses, such as lectures, literature studies, practical training, field studies, etc. The courses are intended to provide wider insights into the subject as a complement to the specialist competence acquired in the research work. The courses included in the individual study plan may partly be selected among the following courses:
- Electromagnetic compatibility
- Lightning: physics and effects
- Electrical discharge physics
- Lightning protection
- High voltage engineering
- Classical electrodynamics
- Numerical technique in electromagnetic theory
- Grounding in power system
- Material analysis
- Ionizing radiation and detectors
For doctoral courses, the teacher responsible for the course normally serves as the examiner. The head of department appoints an examiner for a doctoral course. The task of the examiner is only to determine grades on examinations. The principal supervisor, in consultation with the FUAP and other supervisors, decides which courses and to what extent (number of credits) the doctoral student is allowed to be credited for in their doctoral studies, and this is documented in the individual study plan.
It is up to the principal supervisor, in consultation with the FUAP and other supervisors, to decide which examinations (courses or other elements carried out during the study period of the doctoral education) the doctoral student will be allowed to count towards their doctoral studies and to what extent (number of credits). This shall be documented in the individual study plan. The task of the examiner is only to determine grades on examinations.
An assessment must be made as to whether credits can be awarded for prior studies or professional or vocational experience (that have been completed prior to admission to doctoral education) (Chapter 6, § 8 of the Higher Education Ordinance). At the Faculty, the FUAP is responsible for the assessment.
Thesis, doctoral defence and licentiate seminar
The research work shall result in a scientific thesis that must be defended at a public doctoral defence. The research task may be carried out individually or in collaboration with others within or outside the department. However, the doctoral student must be trained to conduct independent research.
The doctoral thesis can be designed either as a monograph, i.e. a unified, coherent scientific work, or as a compilation thesis, i.e. a compilation of scientific papers with a summary of these. The thesis work must be equivalent to at least 120 credits (Chapter 6, §§ 4–5 of the Higher Education Ordinance, and Appendix 2, System of Qualifications). Theses within the Faculty shall include a popular science summary that is in Swedish and at least two pages long.
The doctoral thesis must either meet the requirements for publication in an international scientific journal with independent quality review, or be a summary of scientific papers with equivalent quality requirements. If the doctoral student has co-authored a paper with another person, this may be taken into account only to the extent that the individual effort can be distinguished. This should be done through a description of the doctoral student’s contribution in the papers on which a compilation thesis is based. If parts of the work have previously been published by the doctoral student in a licentiate thesis, this shall be made clear.
The licentiate thesis is smaller in scope, but is subject to the same quality requirements for constituent papers as apply for the doctoral thesis.
In consultation with the FUAP and other supervisors, the principal supervisor shall assess when the thesis work has progressed to the point that a date for doctoral defence or licentiate seminar can be set.
The forms of defence and the grading of doctoral theses are regulated in the Higher Education Ordinance, the Faculty’s Guidelines for doctoral education (TEKNAT 2021/301) and Admission and grading regulations for doctoral studies at Uppsala University (UFV 2022/729).
The doctoral thesis shall be defended orally in a public doctoral defence. An examining committee appointed by the Faculty decides on the grade for the doctoral thesis.
The Faculty’s guidelines for doctoral education (TEKNAT 2021/301) summarise the rules for the licentiate seminar.
The grade for a licentiate thesis shall be determined by the FUAP, or another professor delegated this duty, in consultation with the principal supervisor and the external reviewer. The principal or assistant supervisor for the doctoral student may not serve as examiner.
The following degree titles have been established for Engineering Sciences with specialisation in Electrical Discharges in the Atmosphere:
Filosofie licentiat- och doktorsexamen
Teknologie licentiat- och doktorsexamen
The English translation for both degrees is Degree of Doctor/Licentiate of Philosophy.
Both the subject and the specialisation are listed on the degree certificate. The degree title (Teknologie/Filosofie licentiat- och doktorsexamen [Degree of Doctor/Licentiate of Philosophy]) shall be determined by the content of the doctoral education, and not by the doctoral student’s degree from a qualifying programme. If a doctoral student wishes to change their degree title to one that differs from that established for the doctoral subject dispensation is required from the Faculty Board (Working Committee). The request for a change of degree title must be made no later than the time of opponent and examining committee appointment or submission of the thesis for printing, whichever occurs first.
Doctoral and licentiate degree certificates are issued upon application in Ladok.
Regulatory framework and responsibilities for doctoral education
Doctoral education is regulated in the Higher Education Act (1992:1434) and the Higher Education Ordinance (1993:100). These are supplemented by the following local regulations: Guidelines for doctoral studies at Uppsala University (UFV 2022/728), Admission and grading regulations for doctoral studies and study programmes at Uppsala University (UFV 2022/729) and Guidelines for doctoral (third cycle) education at the Faculty of Science and Technology (TEKNAT 2021/301).
Responsibility for doctoral education ultimately rests with the University Board and the Vice-Chancellor (Chapter 2, §§ 2–3 of the Higher Education Ordinance). Through delegation, the Disciplinary Domain Board or Faculty Board has overarching responsibility and supervisory responsibility, but the day-to-day responsibility is exercised by the department in which the doctoral student is registered. Key functions in doctoral education are the head of department, professor responsible for doctoral studies (FUAP), director of doctoral studies, and the supervisor. See the Faculty’s Rules of Procedure (TEKNAT 2019/177) for a description of roles and responsibilities.
Research on this subject “Engineering science with specialisation in electrical discharges in the atmosphere” is conducted in principle in collaboration across the borders and cannot be carried out without a vital flow of information. This is necessary that the student can read and write technical scientific text in English and Swedish.
The education and the research in Engineering science with specialisation in electrical discharges in the atmosphere take place mostly in close contact with Swedish industry and other research groups in Sweden and abroad. The general scientific merit that a study in this subject offers is for example appreciated in many different companies and in defense services.
Further information can be found from the Department of electrical engineering.